Mixture Separation (continued)

Decantation: Used to separate components from heterogeneous mixtures consisting of one solid and one liquid component or two liquid components, these liquids must be immiscible.

This method consists of letting the mixture stand and the denser component, under the force of gravity, will form the lower phase and the less dense will occupy the upper phase.

When the mixture to be separated is made up of two immiscible liquids, a glass funnel, known as a Decantation Funnel or Bromine Funnel, may be used. Decanting is used in water treatment plants to precipitate solid components that are mixed with water.

Centrifugation: is used to accelerate the settling of the denser phase of a heterogeneous mixture consisting of one solid and one liquid component. This method consists of subjecting the mixture to an intense rotational motion such that the denser component settles on the bottom of the container.

The butter is separated from the milk by centrifugation. Since milk is denser than butter, it will form the lower phase.

In clinical analysis laboratories, the blood, which is a heterogeneous mixture, is centrifuged to separate its components.

Centrifugation is used in the washing machine to separate water and fabric from the laundry.