The teeth cut, arrest and crunch the foods. In an adult human being, there are 32 teeth, sixteen in each dental arch, distributed as follows:
- Four incisors - located on the front, two on the left and two on the right -, which cut the food;
- Two canines - also called "prey" on either side - which pierce the food;
- Four premolars - two on each side - which crush the food;
- Six molars - three on each side - which also crush the food; Of these, the third or last molar (the wisdom tooth) may never be born.
The tooth is basically made up of three parts:
- Root - part of the tooth attached to the bones of the face (jaws and jaws);
- Crown - the visible white part of the tooth;
- Lap - the part located between the root and the crown.
If you could cut a tooth vertically in half, you would see the following:
- Tooth pulp - soft and red substance formed by connective tissue; It is rich in nerves and blood vessels;
- Dentine or “ivory” - hard and sensitive substance; contains calcium salts and surrounds tooth pulp;
- Enamel - formed by calcium salts, involves dentin in the crown region; at the root dentin is coated with cementum. Enamel is the substance that makes the tooth one of the hardest parts of our body. It is the most mineralized part of the body (concentration of mineral salts). Over time it can be corroded by acids that form in the mouth. Brushing your teeth after each meal is therefore a way to protect them. The baby, at birth, has no teeth. But they are developing internally in the bones. Around six months, the teeth begin to point, breaking the gum. First come the incisors, then the canines, and finally the molars.
This forms the first dentition or “milk” dentition. She will be full around five years old and comprises twenty teeth: eight incisors, four canines and eight molars. There are no premolars.
But this dentition is not permanent. The permanent teeth develop internally in the bone structure. By the age of seven, the first "milk" teeth begin to fall, giving way to the permanent ones. So, little by little, permanent dentition is forming.
We then have two dentitions: the deciduous ("milk"), which begins to fall around the age of seven; the permanent, which is completed around the age of twenty.
The fermentative activity of microorganisms, decomposing food residues that are trapped in the spaces between the teeth, produces acidic substances. In contact with the tooth these substances cause corrosion on the surface causing caries.
At the onset of caries, microscopic gaps form on the surface of the tooth, through which microorganisms infiltrate and attack the dentin. Over time, these breaches give way to cavities visible to the naked eye.
To prevent tooth decay, the following precautions must be taken:
- Brush your teeth every dayjust after meals and at night at bedtime. Teeth should be brushed with gentle, circular and vertical brush movements
- Floss or tape to remove debris that remains between the teeth and was not removed with brushing.
- Go to the dentist periodically Make a more thorough revision and cleaning of the teeth, in addition to the application of fluoride or other treatment determined by the dentist.
When treated early on, cavities are easy to remove.